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Government Immunity

Municipal Immunity, Virginia Law Review (forthcoming 2023)

Backdoor Municipal Immunity, 132 Yale L.J. Forum (Oct. 14, 2022)

Qualified Immunity’s Boldest Lie, 88 U. Chicago L. Rev. 605 (2021)

Qualified Immunity and Federalism All the Way Down, 109 Georgetown Law Journal 305 (2020)

After Qualified Immunity, 120 Columbia L. Rev. 309 (2020)

Qualified Immunity’s Selection Effects, 114 Northwestern University Law Review 1101 (2020)

The Case Against Qualified Immunity, 93 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1797 (2018)

How Qualified Immunity Fails, 127 Yale L.J. 2 (2017)

Civil Rights Litigation & Police Accountability


An urgent and definitive examination of how the legal system prevents accountability for police misconduct, from one of the country's leading scholars on policing.

Civil Rights Without Representation, 64 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 641 (2023)

Lexipol's Fight Against Police Reform (with Ingrid V. Eagly), 97 Ind. L.J. 1 (2022)

New Federalism and Civil Rights Enforcement (with James E. Pfander and Alexander A. Reinert), 116 Nw. U. L. Rev. 737 (2021)

Civil Rights Ecosystems, 114 Michigan L. Rev. 1539 (2020)

Systems Failures in Policing, 51 Suffolk U. L. Rev. 535 (2018)

Lexipol: The Privatization of Police Policymaking (with Ingrid V. Eagly), 96 Texas L. Rev. 891 (2018)

Who Can Police the Police?, 2016 Chi. Legal F. 437

​How Governments Pay: Lawsuits, Budgets, and Police Reform, 63 UCLA L. Rev. 1144 (2016)

Police Indemnification, 89 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 885 (2014)

What Police Learn from Lawsuits, 33 Cardozo L. Rev. 841 (2012)

Myths and Mechanics of Deterrence: The Role of Lawsuits in Law Enforcement Decisionmaking, 57 UCLA L. Rev. 1023 (2010)


Going Rogue: The Supreme Court’s Newfound Hostility to Policy-Based Bivens Claims (with James E. Pfander and Alexander A. Reinert), 96 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1835 (2021)

The Myth of Personal Liability: Who Pays When Bivens Claims Succeed (with James E. Pfander and Alexander A. Reinert), 72 Stanford L. Rev. 561 (2020)

Civil Litigation & Procedure

The Cost of Suing Business, 65 DePaul L. Rev. 655 (2016)

Introspection through Litigation, 90 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1055 (2015)

A Dose of Reality for Medical Malpractice Reform, 88 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 1224 (2013)

Gateways and Pathways in Civil Procedure, 60 UCLA L. Rev. 1652 (2013)





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